Antibiotika

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Historie

1928 Penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming
1932 Sulfonamide antimicrobial activity discovered
1935 First unsuccessful attempt to use Sulfonamide to treat a case of

meningitis, in the following years changes allowed for success.

1940's Penicillin becomes commercially available (late 40’s)
1948 Cephalosporin precursor sent to Oxford for synthesis
1952 Erythromycin derived from Streptomyces erythreus.
1956 Vancomycin introduced for penicillin resistant staphylococcus
1962 Quinolone antibiotics first discovered
1970's Linezolid discovered but not pursued
1980's Fluorinated Quinolones introduced, making them clinically useful
2000 Linezolid introduced into clinical practice

Virkningsmåder:

Bakteriostatisk
Bakteriens vækst stopper, så vores immunforsvar kan bekæmpe bakterien lettere.
Denne type antibiotika gives ikke til svækkede patienter.
Eksempler
tetracycliner
sulfonamider
macrolider
Bakteriocid
Bakterien dræbes, gemmen fx at cellevæggen bliver ødelagt, og pga osmose, så lyser bakterien.
penicilliner
quinoloner
aminoglycosider

Angrebs punkter i bakterier:


Cellevægssyntesehæmmere

penicilliner
cefalosporiner
karbapenemer
vankomycin
teikoplanin

Proteinsyntesen

Makrolider
klindamycin
aminoglykosider
kloramfenikol
tetracykliner
fusidin

Nukleinsyresyntesen

metronidazol
quinoloner
isoniazid
griseofulvin

Cytoplasmamembranens funktion

polymyxiner
amfotericin B
mikonazol
flukonazol
intrakonazol

Resistens:

Typer:

Genetisk resistens (arvet)
Erhvervet (gennem fx. plasmider)