Nested case-control study

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A nested case-control study is a type of study design where new case controls are applied onto cohorts that were defined before the study was begun.

Compare to case-control study, nested case-control study can reduce the recall bias and temporal ambiguity. Compare to cohort study, it can reduce the cost and save time.

The drawback of nested case-control study is non-diseased persons from whom the controls are selected may not be fully representative of the original cohort due to death or losses to follow-up.

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Nested case-control studies are case-control studies done in the population of an ongoing cohort study. The case-control study is thus said to be “nested” inside the cohort study. In large cohorts, it is often more efficient to construct a case-control study within the cohort, once a significant number of cases have emerged, to study a specific exposure not measured at baseline